The following three categories of surfactants are commonly used:
1. Anionic surfactant
1) Sodium alkyl Benzene sulfonate (LAS)
Features: Good biodegradability of linear LAS;
Application: Used as the main ingredient of washing powder.
2) Fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate (AES)
Features: soluble in water, good decontamination and foaming, combined with LAS decontamination and efficiency.
Application: Main component of shampoo, bath liquid, cutlery LS.
3) Secondary alkane sulfonate (SAS)
Features: foaming and washing effect similar to LAS, good water solubility.
Application: In liquid formulations only, such as liquid household dishwashing detergent.
4) Fatty alcohol sulfate (FAS)
Features: Good hard water resistance, but poor hydrolysis resistance;
Application: mainly used for preparing liquid detergents, tableware detergents, various shampoos, toothpastes, textile wetting and cleaning agents and emulsifying polymerization in chemical industry. Powdery FAS can be used to prepare powdery cleaning agent and pesticide wetting powder.
5) α -olefin sulfonate (AOS)
Features: Performance similar to LAS. It is less irritating to the skin and degrades at a faster rate.
Application: Mainly used for preparing liquid detergent and cosmetics.
6) Fatty acid methyl ester sulfonate (MES)
Characteristics: good surface activity, calcium soap dispersity, washing and detergency, good biodegradability, low toxicity, but poor alkaline resistance.
Application: mainly used as calcium soap dispersant for block soap and soap powder.
7) Fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether carboxylate (AEC)
Features: water soluble, hard water resistance, calcium soap dispersion, wettability, foaming, decontamination, small irritation, mild to the skin and eyes;
Application: Mainly used in various shampoos, foam baths and personal protection products.
8) Acylsarcosine salt (Medicine)
Features: soluble in water, good foaming and detergency, resistant to hard water, mild to skin;
Application: used for the preparation of toothpaste, shampoo, bath liquid and other personal care products, light scale Detergent LS, glass Detergent, carpet Detergent and fine fabric Detergent.
9) Oleyl polypeptide (Remibang A)
Characteristics: calcium soap has good dispersing power, stable in hard water and alkaline solution, acidic solution is easy to decompose, easy to absorb moisture, weak defatting power, small irritation to skin;
Application: used for preparation of various industrial Detergent LS.
Laundry detergent agent _ detergent agent
2. Non-ionic surfactants
1) Fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether (AEO)
Features: High stability, good water solubility, electrolyte resistance, easy biodegradation, small foam, not sensitive to hard water, low temperature washing performance, good compatibility with other surfactants;
Application: Suitable for compounding low foam liquid detergent.
2) Alkyl phenol polyoxyethylene ether (APE)
Features: solubilizing, hard water resistance, descaling, good washing effect.
Application: used for the preparation of various liquid and powder detergent.
3) Fatty acid alkanolamide
Features: strong hydrolytic resistance, with strong foaming and stabilizing effect, good washing power, solubilizing power, wetting, antistatic, softness and thickening effect.
Application: used for the preparation of shampoo, bath liquid, household liquid detergent, industrial detergent, rust inhibitor, textile auxiliaries, etc.
4) Alkyl glycosides (APG)
Features: low surface tension, good decontamination, good compatibility, synergistic, good foaming, good solubility, alkali and electrolyte resistance, good thickening ability, good compatibility with skin, significantly improve the mild formula, non-toxic, non-irritant, easy biodegradation.
Application: It can be used as the main raw material of daily chemical industry such as shampoo, shower gel, facial cleanser, laundry detergent, hand washing liquid, dishwashing liquid, vegetable and fruit cleaning agent. Also used in soap powder, phosphorus - free detergent, phosphorus - free detergent and other synthetic detergents.
5) Fatty acid methyl ester ethoxylation products (MEE)
Features: low cost, fast water solubility, low foam, little irritation to the skin, low toxicity, good biodegradation, no pollution.
Application: used for preparation of liquid detergents, hard surface detergents, personal detergents, etc.
6) Tea saponin
Features: strong decontamination ability, anti-inflammatory analgesia, good biodegradation, no pollution.
Application: used in the preparation of detergent and shampoo
7) Losing sorbitol fatty acid ester (Span) or losing sorbitol polyoxyethylene ether ester (Tween) :
Features: non-toxic, low irritant.
Application: Used for preparation of detergent
8) Oxide tertiary amines (OA, OB)
Features: good foaming ability, good foam stability, bactericidal and mildew proof, little irritation to skin, general detergency, good compounding and coordination.
Application: used for preparing liquid detergent such as shampoo, bath liquid and tableware detergent.
3. Amphoteric surfactant
1) Imidazoline amphoteric surfactant:
Features: good washing power, electrolyte resistance, acid-base stability, antistatic and softness, mild performance, non-toxic, low irritation to skin.
Application: used for the preparation of laundry detergent, shampoo, bath liquid, etc.
2) Ring-opening imidazoline amphoteric surfactant:
Features: mild, high blister.
Application: used in the preparation of personal care products, household cleaners, etc.
Two, washing additives
1. The role of detergent additives
Enhanced surface activity; Softening hard water; Improve foam performance; Reduce skin irritation; Improve product appearance.
Washing auxiliaries are divided into inorganic and organic auxiliaries.
2. Inorganic additives
The commonly used phosphates are trisodium phosphate (Na3PO4), sodium tripolyphosphate (Na5P3O10), and tetrapotassium pyrophosphate (K4P2O7).
The main role of sodium tripolyphosphate: ao, so that hard water into soft water; It can disperse, emulsify and dissolve inorganic particles or oil droplets. Maintain the aqueous solution to be weakly alkaline (pH 9.7); The washing powder is not easy to absorb moisture and agglomerate.
2) Sodium silicate
Commonly known as: sodium silicate or paohua alkali;
Molecular formula: Na2O·nSiO2·xH2O;
Dosage: usually 5%~10%.
The main function of sodium silicate: corrosion resistance of metal surface; Can prevent dirt to deposit on the fabric;Detergent LS
Increase the strength of washing powder particles to prevent caking.
3) Sodium sulfate
Also known as Mirabilite (Na2SO4)
Appearance: white crystal or powder;
The main role of sodium sulfate: filler, the content of washing powder is 20%~45%, can reduce the cost of washing powder; It is helpful to adhesion of surfactant on fabric surface; Decrease the critical micelle concentration of surfactant.
4) Sodium carbonate
Commonly known as: soda or soda, Na2CO3;
Appearance: white powder or crystal fine particles
Advantages: can make dirt saponification, and maintain a certain pH value of detergent solution, help to decontaminate, has the effect of softening water;
Disadvantages: strong alkaline, but strong for oil removal;
Purpose: Low grade washing powder.
Also known as molecular sieve, is a crystalline silicon aluminum salt, and Ca2+ exchange capacity is strong, and sodium tripolyphosphate shared, can improve the washing effect.
Mainly hypochlorite and peroxate two categories, including: sodium hypochlorite, sodium perborate, sodium percarbonate and so on.
Function: bleaching and chemical decontamination.
Often in powdery detergent production after the batching process, the amount of powder generally accounted for 10% ~ 30% of the quality.
2. Organic additives
1) Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (anti-deposition agent)
Appearance: white or milky white fibrous powder or particles, easy to disperse in water into transparent gelatin solution.
CMC function: it has the function of thickening, dispersing, emulsifying, suspending, stabilizing foam and carrying dirt.
2) Fluorescent whitening agent (FB)
The dyed material has a glittering effect similar to fluorite, so that the material seen by the naked eye is very white, more colorful color, enhance the aesthetic appearance. The dosage is 0.1%~0.3%.
Commercial detergent enzymes are: protease, amylase, lipase, cellulase.
4) Foam stabilizer and foam regulator
High foam detergent: foam stabilizer
Lauryl diethanolamine and coconut oil diethanolamine.
Low foam detergent: foam regulator
Dodecanoic acid soap or siloxane
Fragrances are composed of various fragrances and have good compatibility with detergent components. They are stable in pH9 ~ 11. The quality of essence added to detergent is generally less than 1%.
Ethanol, urea, polyethylene glycol, toluene sulfonate, etc.
Any substance that can weaken the cohesion of solute and solvent, increase the attraction of solute and solvent and is harmless to washing function and cheap can be used as co-solvent.
(1) Pine oil: sterilization
Alcohols, ethers and lipids: combine water with solvent
Chlorinated solvent: toxic, used in special cleaners, dry cleaning agent.
8) Bacteriostatic agent
Bacteriostatic agent is generally added to the quality of a few thousand, such as: tribromosalicylate aniline, trichloroacyl aniline or hexachlorobenzene, do not have antibacterial effect, but in a few thousand of the mass fraction can prevent the reproduction of bacteria.
9) Antistatic agent and fabric softener
With soft and antistatic cationic surfactants: dimethyl ammonium chloride dimethyl octyl ammonium bromide distearate, high carbon alkyl pyridine salt, high carbon alkyl imidazoline salt;
With soft non-ionic surfactants: high carbon alcohol polyoxyethylene ethers and amine oxide with long carbon chains.
Post time: May-20-2022